The influence of age hardening on microstructure, phase composition, and microhardness of high-nitrogen austenitic steel
The authors studied the effect of duration of age hardening at the temperature of 700 °C on the microstructure, phase composition and microhardness of high-nitrogen Fe-23Cr-17Mn-0.1C-0.6N (wt. %) steel. The study showed that age hardening at the temperature of 700 °C for half an hour causes the complex of phase transformations: the decomposition of δ-ferrite (with the formation of σ-phase and austenite) and the formation of cells of discontinuous decomposition on the austenitic grains boundaries (the formation of particles based on the chromium nitride Cr2N and the depletion of austenite by interstitials). After age hardening for more than 10 hours, besides the discontinuous decomposition of austenitic grains, a homogeneous (continuous) precipitation of chromium nitride occurs in those austenitic grains, which have not undergone discontinuous decomposition in the initial stages of aging. With an increase in the aging duration up to 50 hours, the authors observed the growth of decomposition cells in austenitic grains and the formation of mixed structure. Such structure consisted of austenite grains, which underwent discontinuous decomposition with the formation of lamellar precipitations of chromium nitride in austenite; austenitic grains with the dispersed particles formed by the mechanism of continuous decomposition; and the grains with σ-phase, chromium nitrides, and austenite formed as a result of the high-temperature ferrite decomposition during aging. The aging caused the increase in the microhardness, which value depends on the mechanism of precipitation hardening – continuous or discontinuous decomposition in austenite or the precipitation of intermetallic σ-phase and chromium nitrides plates in the grains of high-temperature ferrite.
Berns H., Gavriljuk V., Riedner S. High interstitial stainless austenitic steels. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2013. 170 p.
Rashev T.V., Eliseev A.V., Zhekova L.T., Bogev P.V. High-Nitrogen Steel. Steel in Translation, 2019, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 433–439.
Wang S., Yang K., Shan Y., Laifeng L. Plastic deformation and fracture behaviors of nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2008, vol. 490, no. 1-2, pp. 95–104.
Mullner P., Solenthaler C., Uggowitzer P., Spei del M.O. On the effect of nitrogen on the dislocation structure of austenitic stainless steel. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 1993, vol. 164, no. 1-2, pp. 164–169.
Gavrilyuk V., Petrov Yu., Shanina B. Effect of nitrogen on the electron structure and stacking fault energy in austenitic steels. Scripta Materialia, 2006, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 537–540.
Bannykh I.O., Sevost’yanov M.A., Prutskov M.E. Effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and the structure of a high-nitrogen austenitic O2Kh20AG10N4MFB steel. Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2016, vol. 2016, no. 7, pp. 613–618.
Makarov A.V., Luchko S.N., Shabashov V.A., Volkova E.G., Zamatovskii A.E., Litvinov A.V., Sagaradze V.V., Osintseva A.I. Structural and phase transformations and micromechanical properties of the high-nitrogen steel deformed by shear under pressure. The physics of metals and metallography, 2017, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 52–64.
Kartik B., Veerababu R., Sundararaman M., Satyanarayana D.V.V. Effect of high temperature ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Material Science and Engineering: A, 2015, vol. 642, pp. 288–296.
Li H.B., Jiang Z.-H., Feng H., Ma Q.-F., Zhan D.-P. Aging Precipitation behavior of 18Cr-16Mn-2Mo-1.1N High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel and Its Influences on Mechanical Properties. Journal of Iron and Steels Research International, 2012, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 43–51.
Pettersson N., Frisk K., Fluch R. Experimental and computational study of nitride precipitation in a CrMnN austenitic stainless steel. Material Science and Engineering: A, 2017, vol. 684, pp. 435–441.
Vanderschaeve F., Taillard R., Foct J. Discontinuous precipitation of Cr2N in a high nitrogen, chromium-manganese austenitic stainless steel. Journal of Materials Science, 1995, vol. 30, no. 23, pp. 6035–6046.
Panchenko M.Yu., Maier G.G., Tumbusova I.A., Astafurov S.V., Melnikov E.V., Moskvina V.A., Burlachenko A.G., Mirovoy Y.A., Mironov Y.P., Galchenko N.K., Astafurova E.G. The effect of age-hardening mechanism on hydrogen embrittlement in high-nitrogen steels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, vol. 44, no. 36, pp. 20529–20544.
Maier G., Astafurova E., Moskvina V., Melnikov E., Astafurov S.V., Tumbusova I., Fortuna A., Panchenko M., Mironov Y., Mirovoy Y., Galchenko N. Effect of age hardening on phase composition and microhardness of V-free and V-alloyed high-nitrogen austenitic steels. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018, vol. 2051, pp. 020183-1−020183-5.
Gorelik S.S., Skakov Yu.A., Rastorguev L.N. Rentgenograficheskiy i elektronno-opticheskiy analiz [X-ray and electron-optical analysis]. Moscow, MISIS Publ., 2002. 360 p.
Teylor A. Rentgenovskaya metallografiya [X-ray metallography]. Moscow, Metallyrgiya Publ., 1965. 663 p.
Hsieh C.-C., Wu W. Overview of Intermetallic Sigma (σ) Phase Precipitation in Stainless Steels. ISRN Metallurgy, 2012, vol. 2012, art. ID 732471. DOI: 10.5402/2012/732471.
Sourmail T. Precipitation in creep resistant austenitic stainless steels. Materials Science and Technology, 2001, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14.
Ma Y.-X., Rong F., Zhou R., Lang Y.-P., Jiang Y.-H. Study on precipitation of high nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steel during isothermal aging at intermediate temperature. Proceeding of Sino-Swedish Structural Materials Symposium, 2007, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 344–349.
Knutsen R.D., Lang C.I., Basson J.A. Discontinuous cellular precipitation in Cr-Mn-N steel with niobium and vanadium additional. Acta Materialia, 2004, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 2407–2417.
Shi F., Wang L.-J., Cui W.-F. Liu C-M. Precipitation kinetics of Cr2N in high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, 2008, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 72–77.
Santhi Srinivas N.C., Kutumbarao V.V. On the discontinuous precipitation of Cr2N in Cr-Mn-N austenitic stainless steels. Scripta materialia, 1997, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 285–291.
The authors who publish their manuscripts in “Vektor Nauki of Togliatti State University” Journal agree that:
- When submitting a manuscript to the Editors of “Vektor Nauki of Togliatti State University” Journal, the author accepts that the Editors have the exclusive property rights for the paper use (material submitted to the Editors including such protected by the copyright law objects as figures, charts, tables, etc.), including the rights for reproduction in print and on the Internet; distribution; translation of the materials into English.
- The author guarantees that (s)he has exclusive copyright for the material submitted to the Editors. Shall this guarantee be violated and shall the Editors receive any complaints or claims as a result, the Author shall settle all claims and complaints at his/her own and at his/her expense. The Editors shall not be held liable to a third party for violation of the guarantees given by the Author.
- The Author shall retain the right to use his/her published material, its fragments and paragraphs for personal and teaching purposes. Copying the materials published in the journal can only be allowed to other individuals or legal entities by a written consent from the Editors with a reference to the particular issue (year of publishing) in which the material was published.