The influence of age hardening on microstructure, phase composition, and microhardness of high-nitrogen austenitic steel

Keywords: high-nitrogen steel, Fe-23Cr-17Mn-0,1C-0,6N, age hardening, σ-phase, Cr2N, austenite, precipitation hardening, microhardness

Abstract

The authors studied the effect of duration of age hardening at the temperature of 700 °C on the microstructure, phase composition and microhardness of high-nitrogen Fe-23Cr-17Mn-0.1C-0.6N (wt. %) steel. The study showed that age hardening at the temperature of 700 °C for half an hour causes the complex of phase transformations: the decomposition of δ-ferrite (with the formation of σ-phase and austenite) and the formation of cells of discontinuous decomposition on the austenitic grains boundaries (the formation of particles based on the chromium nitride Cr2N and the depletion of austenite by interstitials). After age hardening for more than 10 hours, besides the discontinuous decomposition of austenitic grains, a homogeneous (continuous) precipitation of chromium nitride occurs in those austenitic grains, which have not undergone discontinuous decomposition in the initial stages of aging. With an increase in the aging duration up to 50 hours, the authors observed the growth of decomposition cells in austenitic grains and the formation of mixed structure. Such structure consisted of austenite grains, which underwent discontinuous decomposition with the formation of lamellar precipitations of chromium nitride in austenite; austenitic grains with the dispersed particles formed by the mechanism of continuous decomposition; and the grains with σ-phase, chromium nitrides, and austenite formed as a result of the high-temperature ferrite decomposition during aging. The aging caused the increase in the microhardness, which value depends on the mechanism of precipitation hardening – continuous or discontinuous decomposition in austenite or the precipitation of intermetallic σ-phase and chromium nitrides plates in the grains of high-temperature ferrite.

Author Biographies

Irina A. Tumbusova, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

student, engineer of Laboratory of Physics of Structural Transformations

Galina G. Maier, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

PhD (Physics and Mathematics), researcher of Laboratory of Physics of Structural Transformations

Marina Yu. Panchenko, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

postgraduate student, junior researcher of Laboratory of Local Metallurgy in Additive Technologies

Valentina A. Moskvina, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

postgraduate student, junior researcher of Laboratory of Local Metallurgy in Additive Technologies

Evgeny V. Melnikov, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

junior researcher of Laboratory of Local Metallurgy in Additive Technologies

Sergey V. Astafurov, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

PhD (Physics and Mathematics), senior researcher of Laboratory of Physics of Structural Transformations

Elena G. Astafurova, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences

Doctor of Science (Physics and Mathematics), leading researcher of Laboratory of Physics of Structural Transformations

References

Berns H., Gavriljuk V., Riedner S. High interstitial stainless austenitic steels. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2013. 170 p.

Rashev T.V., Eliseev A.V., Zhekova L.T., Bogev P.V. High-Nitrogen Steel. Steel in Translation, 2019, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 433–439.

Wang S., Yang K., Shan Y., Laifeng L. Plastic deformation and fracture behaviors of nitrogen-alloyed austenitic stainless steels. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2008, vol. 490, no. 1-2, pp. 95–104.

Mullner P., Solenthaler C., Uggowitzer P., Spei del M.O. On the effect of nitrogen on the dislocation structure of austenitic stainless steel. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 1993, vol. 164, no. 1-2, pp. 164–169.

Gavrilyuk V., Petrov Yu., Shanina B. Effect of nitrogen on the electron structure and stacking fault energy in austenitic steels. Scripta Materialia, 2006, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 537–540.

Bannykh I.O., Sevost’yanov M.A., Prutskov M.E. Effect of heat treatment on the mechanical properties and the structure of a high-nitrogen austenitic O2Kh20AG10N4MFB steel. Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2016, vol. 2016, no. 7, pp. 613–618.

Makarov A.V., Luchko S.N., Shabashov V.A., Volkova E.G., Zamatovskii A.E., Litvinov A.V., Sagaradze V.V., Osintseva A.I. Structural and phase transformations and micromechanical properties of the high-nitrogen steel deformed by shear under pressure. The physics of metals and metallography, 2017, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 52–64.

Kartik B., Veerababu R., Sundararaman M., Satyanarayana D.V.V. Effect of high temperature ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Material Science and Engineering: A, 2015, vol. 642, pp. 288–296.

Li H.B., Jiang Z.-H., Feng H., Ma Q.-F., Zhan D.-P. Aging Precipitation behavior of 18Cr-16Mn-2Mo-1.1N High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel and Its Influences on Mechanical Properties. Journal of Iron and Steels Research International, 2012, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 43–51.

Pettersson N., Frisk K., Fluch R. Experimental and computational study of nitride precipitation in a CrMnN austenitic stainless steel. Material Science and Engineering: A, 2017, vol. 684, pp. 435–441.

Vanderschaeve F., Taillard R., Foct J. Discontinuous precipitation of Cr2N in a high nitrogen, chromium-manganese austenitic stainless steel. Journal of Materials Science, 1995, vol. 30, no. 23, pp. 6035–6046.

Panchenko M.Yu., Maier G.G., Tumbusova I.A., Astafurov S.V., Melnikov E.V., Moskvina V.A., Burlachenko A.G., Mirovoy Y.A., Mironov Y.P., Galchenko N.K., Astafurova E.G. The effect of age-hardening mechanism on hydrogen embrittlement in high-nitrogen steels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, vol. 44, no. 36, pp. 20529–20544.

Maier G., Astafurova E., Moskvina V., Melnikov E., Astafurov S.V., Tumbusova I., Fortuna A., Panchenko M., Mironov Y., Mirovoy Y., Galchenko N. Effect of age hardening on phase composition and microhardness of V-free and V-alloyed high-nitrogen austenitic steels. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018, vol. 2051, pp. 020183-1−020183-5.

Gorelik S.S., Skakov Yu.A., Rastorguev L.N. Rentgenograficheskiy i elektronno-opticheskiy analiz [X-ray and electron-optical analysis]. Moscow, MISIS Publ., 2002. 360 p.

Teylor A. Rentgenovskaya metallografiya [X-ray metallography]. Moscow, Metallyrgiya Publ., 1965. 663 p.

Hsieh C.-C., Wu W. Overview of Intermetallic Sigma (σ) Phase Precipitation in Stainless Steels. ISRN Metallurgy, 2012, vol. 2012, art. ID 732471. DOI: 10.5402/2012/732471.

Sourmail T. Precipitation in creep resistant austenitic stainless steels. Materials Science and Technology, 2001, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–14.

Ma Y.-X., Rong F., Zhou R., Lang Y.-P., Jiang Y.-H. Study on precipitation of high nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steel during isothermal aging at intermediate temperature. Proceeding of Sino-Swedish Structural Materials Symposium, 2007, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 344–349.

Knutsen R.D., Lang C.I., Basson J.A. Discontinuous cellular precipitation in Cr-Mn-N steel with niobium and vanadium additional. Acta Materialia, 2004, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 2407–2417.

Shi F., Wang L.-J., Cui W.-F. Liu C-M. Precipitation kinetics of Cr2N in high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, 2008, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 72–77.

Santhi Srinivas N.C., Kutumbarao V.V. On the discontinuous precipitation of Cr2N in Cr-Mn-N austenitic stainless steels. Scripta materialia, 1997, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 285–291.

Published
2020-06-29
Section
Technical Sciences