• Aleksey Viktorovich Shchegolkov Tambov State Technical University
  • Aleksandr Viktorovich Shchegolkov Tambov State Technical University
Keywords: graphene oxide, electrochromic films, tungsten trioxide, optical spectroscopy


Modern materials science is developing towards the creation of functional materials with adjustable properties and parameters. The materials with electrically controlled optical properties, so-called electrochromic films, take the special place in the hierarchy of materials with adjustable parameters. The electrochromic films become widely used when creating a new generation of devices, both in various fields of electronics and in the field of renewable energy. From the practical point of view, one of the possible ways of improving technical characteristics of electrochromic films is their modification by carbon nanomaterials, in particular, by graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The use of GO and rGO as a modifier for the electrochromic materials is caused by some unique features, namely: low sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, chemical inertness, high specific surface area, the ability to change the charge state, and the increased electrical conductivity of rGO.

To produce the electrochromic films, the authors used the spray-pyrolysis method. This method allows for obtaining the electrochromic films based on nanoscale tungsten trioxide (WO3) modified by rGO. The authors studied the electrochemical characteristics of electrochromic films and the influence of rGO on the performance of the electrochromic films. The WO3/rGO electrochromic films were reversibly colored in violet at the voltage of −2.1 V, as well as increased light transmission coefficient at the positive voltage of +2 V. During the research, the authors studied spectral properties of the produced nanocomposite WO3/rGO electrochromic films at various values of electrical potential and evaluated their stable cycling within the range of voltage from −0.7 to 1 V for the three-electrode system. The study identified that the controllable activation of WO3/rGO electrochromic films related to the increase in light transmission is in the voltage range from −1.6 V to −2.2 V, and the inverse effect is peculiar for the range from 0 to +2 V.

Author Biographies

Aleksey Viktorovich Shchegolkov, Tambov State Technical University

postgraduate student of Chair “Equipment and Technology of Production of Nanoproducts”

Aleksandr Viktorovich Shchegolkov, Tambov State Technical University

PhD (Engineering), assistant professor of Chair “Equipment and Technology of Production of Nanoproducts”


Granqvist C.G. Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, 1995, 633 p.

Monk P.M.S., Mortimer R.J., Rosseinsky D.R. Electrochromism and electrochromic devices. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007, 483 p.

Lampert C.M. Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2003, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 489–499.

Ge C., Wang M., Hussain S., Xu Z., Liu G., Qiao G. Electron transport and electrochromic properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films: Effect of crystallinity. Thin solid Films, 2018, vol. 653, pp. 199–125.

Zhang G., Lu K., Zhang X., Yuan W., Shi M., Ning H., Tao R., Liu X., Yao R., Peng J. Effects of Annealing Temperature on Optical Films Gap of Sol-gel Tungsten Trioxide Films. Micromachines, 2018, vol. 9, no. 8, ppP. 377–386.

Wang W., Peelaers H., Shen J.-X., Walle C.G. Carrier-induced absorption as a mechanism for electrochromism in tungsten trioxide. MRS Communications, 2018, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 926–931.

Louloudakis D., Thongpan W., Mouratis K., Koudoumas E., Kiriakidis G., Singiai P. Novel Spark Method for Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films: Deposition o Hexagonal Tungsten Oxide. Physica Status Solidi A, 2019, vol. 216, no. 7, pp. 513–519.

Buch R.V., Rawal S.K., Chawla A.K. Structual, Optical and Electrochromic Properties of Sputter Deposited Tungsten Oxide Films in Argon-Helium Atmosphere. European Journal of Scientific Research, 2018, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 249–257.

Hincheeranum W., Chananonnawathorn C., Horprathum M., Eiamchai P., Limwichean S., Pattansetakul V., Aimpanakit K. Omnidirectional antireflection and electrochromic properties of WO3 nanorods prepared by oblique angle deposition. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2010, pp. 6423–6429.

Li Y., McMaster W.A., Wei H., Chen D., Caruso R.A. Enhanced Electrochromic Properties of WO3 Nanotree-like Structures Synthesized via a Two-Step Solvothermal Process showing Promise for Electrochromic window Application. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 2018, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 2552–2558.

Buch V.R., Chawla A.K., Rawal S.K. Review on electrochromic property for WO3 thin films using different deposition techniques. Materials today: Proceedings, 2016, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1429–1437.

Ren Y., Zhou X., Wang Q., Zhao G. Combined redox and plasmonic electrochromic effects in WO3/ITO double-layer films. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 2018, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 732–742.

Klisch M.12-tungstosilicic acid (12-TSA) as a tungsten precursor in alcoholic solution for deposition of xWO3_1 − x_SiO2 thin films (x<0.7) exhibiting electrochromic coloration ability. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 1998, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 21–33.

Li D., Wu G., Gao G., Shen J., Huang F.-Q. Ultrafast coloring-bleaching performance of nanoporous WO3-SiO2 gasochromic films doped with Pd catalyst. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2011, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 4573–4579.

Saygin-Hinczewski D., Hinczewski M., Sorar I., Tepehan F.Z., Tepehan G.G. Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3-SiO2 thin films. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2008, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 821–829.

Xu X.Q., Shen H., Xiong X.Y. Gasochromic effect of solgel WO3–SiO2 films with evaporated platinum catalyst. Thin Solid Films, 2002, vol. 415, no. 1-2, pp. 290–295.

Jellison G.E., Modine F.A. Parametrization of the optical functions ofamorphous materials in the interband region. Applied Physics Letters, 1996, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 371–373.

Naseri N., Azimirad R., Akhavan O., Moshfegh A.Z. The effect of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide concentration on surface properties of dip-coated hydrophilic WO3-SiO2 thin films. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2007, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 2089–2095.

Yoo S.J., Lim J.W., Sung Y.-E., Jung Y.H., Choi H.G., Kim D.K. Fast switchable electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide nanowire bundles. Applied Physics Letters, 2007, vol. 90, no. 17, p. 173126.

Khalifa Z., Aly M., Abound A.A. Effects of annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of WO3 films deposited by Sol-gel Tecnique. International Research Journal of Nanomaterials, 2013, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–11.

Hočevar M., Bogati S., Georg A., Opara U., Krašovec A. Photoactive layer in photochromic glazing. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2017, vol. 171, pp. 85–90.

Technical Sciences