• Aleksandr Petrovich Shaikin Togliatti State University
  • Aleksandr Dmitrievich Deryachev Togliatti State University
  • Mikhail Vyacheslavovich Sazonov Togliatti State University
  • Sergey Sergeevich Khlopotkin Togliatti State University
Keywords: combustion, turbulence, combustion pressure, hydrogen addition, ion current, combustion engine, heat dissipation, combustion characteristics, chemical reaction intensity


The paper presents the results of the study of the possible relationship of the maximum combustion pressure characterizing the efficiency of heat dissipation with the main characteristics of combustion in piston internal combustion engines (ICE). During the experiments, to change the flame propagation characteristics, hydrogen in the amount of 3 % and 5 % of the mass fuel consumption was added to the air-fuel mixture, as well as the fluid turbulence was changed when using two crankshaft speed values. The authors determined the dependences of maximum combustion pressure Pzmax of the fuel-air mixture and the ion current flame intensity in the zone the most distant from the ignition plug on the composition of the fuel-air mixture with hydrogen additives during its combustion in a combustion chamber of variable volume. The addition of hydrogen leads to the decrease in the combustion time and the increase in the ion current intensity and the maximum combustion pressure of the fuel-air mixture. The authors considered the main combustion characteristics: time, ion current, volume at the moment of maximum pressure, turbulence, crankshaft speed, and their influence on the maximum combustion pressure. The study identified the relationship of the combustion pressure with the ion current reflecting the intensity of chemical reactions of combustion in the zone the most distant from the ignition plug, as well as with the volume of combustion completion. The experimental points are accurately connected by a single curve line. The obtained experimental dependences can be represented as a polynomial of the 2nd order. The authors identified the influence of turbulence change due to the change of crankshaft speed on maximum combustion pressure Pzmax.

The authors proposed the experimental mathematical relationship between the maximum combustion pressure and the crankshaft speed. Knowing the maximum combustion pressure on one speed range and using the obtained dependence, it is possible to predict the value of its variable for the whole interval of speed ranges of engine work.

Author Biographies

Aleksandr Petrovich Shaikin, Togliatti State University

Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Professor, professor of Chair “Power Machines and Control Systems”

Aleksandr Dmitrievich Deryachev, Togliatti State University

PhD (Engineering), Engineer of Chair “Power Machines and Control Systems”

Mikhail Vyacheslavovich Sazonov, Togliatti State University

postgraduate student of Chair “Power Machines and Control Systems”

Sergey Sergeevich Khlopotkin, Togliatti State University

student of Chair “Power Machines and Control Systems”


Orlin A.S., Kruglov M.G. Dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniya. Ustroystvo i rabota porshnevykh i kombinirovannykh dvigatele [Internal combustion Engines. Design and operation of piston and combined engines]. Izd. 4th pererab. i dop. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1990. 289 p.

Vibe I.I. Novoe o rabochem tsikle dvigatelya [New about the working cycle of the engine]. Moscow, Mashgiz Publ., 1962. 271 p.

Sharoglazov B.A., Farafontov M.F., Klementev V.V. Dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniya: teoriya, modelirovanie i raschet protsessov [Internal combustion Engines: theory, modeling and calculation of processes]. Chelyabinsk, YuUrGU Publ., 2006. 382 p.

Li Y., Jia M., Chang Y., Kokjohn S.L., Reitz R.D. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis of three different engine combustion regimes. Applied Energy, 2016, vol. 180, pp. 849–858.

Li H., Gatts H., Liu S., Wayne S., Clark N., Mather D. An Experimental Investigation on the Combustion Process of a Simulated Turbocharged SI Natural Gas Engine Operated on Stoichiometric Mixture. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 2017, vol. 140, no. 9, p. 091504.

Stepanov E.M., Dyachkov B.G. Ionizatsiya v plameni i elektricheskoe pole [Ionization in the flame and the electric field]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1968. 311 p.

Smolenskya N.M., Korneev N.V. Modelling of the Combustion Velocity in UIT-85 on sustainable Alternative Gas Fuel. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science, 2017, vol. 66, no. 1, p. 012016.

Inozemtsev N.N. Ionization in laminar flames. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Otdelenie tekhnicheskikh nauk. Energetika i avtomatika, 1960, no. 2, pp. 59–66.

Andersson I. Cylinder Pressure and ionization current modeling for spark ignited engines. Doctoral thesis № 962. Linkoping, 2002. 93 p.

Smolenskya N.M. The Electrical Conductivity of the Flame Front, as a Characteristic of the Rate of heat Release and Composition if Gas Fuel in SI Engines. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, vol. 115, no. 1, p. 012309.

Corcione F.E., Vaglieco B.M., Merola S.S. Evaluation of Knocking Combustion by an Ion Current System and Optical Diagnostics of Radical Species. The Proceedings of the International symposium on diagnostics and modeling of combustion in internal combustion engines, 2004, vol. 2005, pp. 487–495.

Smolenskaya N.M., Smolenskii V.V. Modelling the average velocity of propagation of the flame front in a gasoline engine with hydrogen additives. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, vol. 115, no. 1, p. 012016.

Smolenskaya N.M., Smolenskii V.V. Increase in the thermodynamic efficiency of the working process of spark-ignited engines on natural gas with the addition of hydrogen. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, vol. 121, no. 5, p. 052009.

Shaykin A.P., Ivashin P.V., Deryachev A.D. The study of interrelationship of ionization current and maximum indicated pressure during the combustion of hydrogen rich gasoline-air mixture. Vektor nauki Tolyattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2017, no. 1, pp. 30–35.

Yasnikov I.S., Ivashin P.V., Shaikin A.P. On the turbulent propagation of a flame in a closed volume. Technical Physics. The Russian Journal of Applied Physics, 2013, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1587–1591.

Shaikin A.P., Bobrovskij I.N., Deryachev A.D., Ivashin P.V., Galiev I.R., Tverdokhlebov A.Y. Use of Ionization Sensors to Study Combustion Characteristics in Variable Volume Chamber. GloSIC 2018: Proceedings 2018 Global Smart Industry Conference, 2018, p. 8570082.

Varnatts Yu., Maas U., Dibbl R. Gorenie. Fizicheskie i khimicheskie aspekty, modelirovanie, eksperimenty, obrazovanie zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv [Combustion. Physical and chemical aspects, modeling, experiments, formation of pollutants and]. Moscow, FIZMATLIT Publ., 2006. 352 p.

Johansson B., Olsson K. Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part I: Fluid Flow and Combustion. SAE Technical Paper Series, 1990, no. 950469, pp. 1–15.

Shaykin A.P., Galiev I.R. Relation between flame chemiionization and variable-volume combustion chamber temperature and pressure. Vestnik Samarskogo universiteta. Aerokosmicheskaya tekhnika, tekhnologii i mashinostroenie, 2017, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 91–100.

Shaykin A.P., Ivashin P.V., Galiev I.R., Deryachev A.D. Kharakteristiki rasprostraneniya plameni i ikh vliyanie na obrazovanie nesgorevshikh uglevodorodov i oksida azota v otrabotavshikh gazakh pri dobavke vodoroda v toplivno-vozdushnuyu smes energeticheskikh ustanovok s iskrovym zazhiganiem [Characteristics of flame propagation and their influence on the formation of unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in the exhaust gas, with the addition of hydrogen in the fuel-air mixture in power plants with spark-ignition]. Samara, Samarskiy nauchnyy tsentr RAN Publ., 2016. 203 p.

Technical Sciences