MODIFICATION OF CEMENT BY FEW-LAYER GRAPHENE
Improving the performance characteristics of concrete and, above all, the compression and bending strength is a very urgent task. This problem is usually solved by modifying concrete with various organic and inorganic products of the chemical industry. In the last decade, nanomaterials, including carbon nanomaterials, are actively used as modifiers. Few-layer graphene and graphene oxide are the most promising modifiers. Few-layer graphene can be produced on an industrial scale using the liquid-phase shear exfoliation of crystalline graphite. This technology is fundamentally different from that of producing few-layer graphene from graphite oxide since it does not use strong acids and ultrasound processing, which reduces the cost of the finished product by ten folds. The paper presents the results of the study of the process of modifying cement mixtures with the few-layer graphene produced by the liquid-phase shearing exfoliation of graphite. The modification was carried out by using slurry as mixing water with the few-layer graphene concentrations of 0.02 to 0.07 % relative to cement. To determine the strength characteristics of cement, 40×40×160 mm sample beams were made. Cement solutions and samples were prepared in full compliance with the Standards. The samples were tested for compression and three-point bending. It was experimentally established that the maximum relative strength is achieved at the 0.05–0.06 wt. % concentration (relative to cement) of few-layer graphene, and the further increase in concentration does not lead to the increase in strength. In particular, the compressive strength increases 1.7–2.5 times, when the bending strength increases 1.2–1.5 times. It should be particularly noted that as the compressive strength of a control sample (not modified with the few-layer graphene) increases, the modification effectiveness decreases.
Falikman V.R., Vayner A.Ya. New high performance nanoadditives for photocatalytic concrete: synthesis and study. Nanotekhnologii v stroitelstve: nauchnyy internet-zhurnal, 2015, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 18–28.
Tolmachev S.N., Belichenko E.A. Features of the influence of carbonaceous nanoparticles on the rheological properties of cement paste and technological properties of the fine-grained concrete. Nanotekhnologii v stroitelstve: nauchnyy internet-zhurnal, 2014, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 13–29.
Nizina T.A., Kochetkov S.N., Ponomarev A.N., Kozeev A.A. Influence efficiency assessment of nanomodifiers on the strength and rheological properties of cement composites depending on the type of plasticizing additives. Regionalnaya arkhitektura i stroitelstvo, 2013, no. 2, pp. 43–49.
Urkhanova L.A., Lkhasaranov S.A., Buyantuev S.L., Kuznetsova A.Yu. About the influence of carbon nanomaterials on the properties of cement and concrete. Nanotekhnologii v stroitelstve: nauchnyy internet-zhurnal, 2016, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 16–41.
Stenechkina K.S. Influence of hardening conditions on the properties of nano-modified concretes. Innovatsionnaya nauka, 2017, no. 5, pp. 65–67.
Panina T.I., Tkachev A.G., Mikhaleva Z.A. The Influence of Polyfunctional Nanomodifier on Frost Resistance of Fine Concrete. Vestnik Tambovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2014, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 349–355.
Li G.Y., Wang P.M., Zhao X. Mechanical behavior and microstructure of cement composites incorporating surface-treated multi-walled Carbon nanotubes. Carbon, 2005, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1239–1245.
Cwirzen A., Habermehl-Cwirzen K., Penttala V. Surface decoration of carbon nanotubes and mechanical properties of cement/carbon nanotube composites. Advances in Cement Research, 2008, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 65–73.
Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Korzhenko A., Buryanov A.F., Kerene Ya., Maeva I.S., Khazeev D.R., Pudov I.A., Senkov S.A. The use of dispersions of multilayer carbon nanotubes in the production of autoclaved silicate aerated concrete. Stroitelnye materialy, 2013, no. 2, pp. 25–29.
Yakovlev G.I., Pervushin G.N., Kerene Ya., Polyanskikh I.S., Pudov I.A., Khazeev D.R., Senkov S.A. Complex additive based on carbon nanotubes and silica fume for modifying autoclaved aerated gas silicate. Stroitelnye materialy, 2014, no. 1-2, pp. 3–7.
Manzur T., Yazdani N., Emon M.A.B. Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2016, vol. 2016, article nuber 1421959.
Gusev B.V., Petrunin S.Yu. Cavitation dispersion of carbon nanotubes and modification of cement systems. Nanotekhnologii v stroitelstve: nauchnyy internet-zhurnal, 2014, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 50–57.
Pudov I.A., Yakovlev G.I., Lushnikova A.A., Izryadnova O.V. Hydrodinamic Way of Dispergation of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes at Modification of Mineral Binders. Intellektualnye sistemy v proizvodstve, 2011, no. 1, pp. 285–293.
Dimov D., Amit I., Gorrie O., Barnes M.D., Townsend N.J., Neves A.I.S., Withers F., Russo S., Felicia M., Craciun M.F. Ultrahigh Performance Nanoengineered Graphene-Concrete Composites for Multifunctional Applications. Advances in Cement Research, 2018, vol. 28, no. 23, article 1705183.
Paton K.R., Varrla E., Backes C., Smith R.J., Khan U., O’Neill A., Boland C., Lotya M., Istrate O.M., King P., Higgins T., Barwich S., May P., Puczkarski P., Ahmed I., Moebius M., Pettersson H., Long E., Coelho J., O’Brien S.E., McGuire E.K., Sanchez B.M., Duesberg G.S., McEvoy N., Pennycook T.J., Downing C., Crossley A., Nicolosi V., Coleman J.N. Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids. Nature materials, 2014, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 624–630.
Lee J.-U., Yoon D., Cheong H. Estimation of Young's modulus of graphene by Raman spectroscopy. Nano Letters, 2012, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 4444–4448.
Sedaghat A., Ram M.K., Zayed A., Kamal R., Shanahan N. Investigation of physical properties of graphene-cement composite for structural applications. Open journal of composite materials, 2014, vol. 4, pp. 12–21.
Richardson I.G. The calcium silicate hydrates. Cement and Concrete Research, 2008, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 137–158.
Pan Z., He L., Qiu L., Korayem A.H., Li G., Zhu J.W., Collins F., Li D., Duan W.H., Wang M.C. Mechanical properties and microstructure of a graphene oxide-cement composite. Cement and Concrete Research, 2015, vol. 58, pp. 140–147.
Khozin V.G., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Nizamov R.K. Common Concentration Pattern of Effects of Construction Materials Nanomodification. Stroitelnye materialy, 2015, no. 2, pp. 25–33.
The authors who publish their manuscripts in “Vektor Nauki of Togliatti State University” Journal agree that:
- When submitting a manuscript to the Editors of “Vektor Nauki of Togliatti State University” Journal, the author accepts that the Editors have the exclusive property rights for the paper use (material submitted to the Editors including such protected by the copyright law objects as figures, charts, tables, etc.), including the rights for reproduction in print and on the Internet; distribution; translation of the materials into English.
- The author guarantees that (s)he has exclusive copyright for the material submitted to the Editors. Shall this guarantee be violated and shall the Editors receive any complaints or claims as a result, the Author shall settle all claims and complaints at his/her own and at his/her expense. The Editors shall not be held liable to a third party for violation of the guarantees given by the Author.
- The Author shall retain the right to use his/her published material, its fragments and paragraphs for personal and teaching purposes. Copying the materials published in the journal can only be allowed to other individuals or legal entities by a written consent from the Editors with a reference to the particular issue (year of publishing) in which the material was published.