THE RELIGIOUSNESS AS A SOCIAL-PSYCOLOGICAL PHENOMENON
Despite the fact that the psychology of religion develops rapidly in Russia as well as abroad, there is no uniform psychological definition of a religiousness phenomenon. It is hindered as well due to the fact that the psychology of religion as a sphere of scientific knowledge is determined ambiguously. There are three main approaches influencing the creation of theoretical apparatus of the scientific study. The first approach considers the psychology of religion as a part of philosophy or religious studies, the second – as a theology sphere, and the third one, we follow in this paper, as one of the psychology branches.
To the authors’ opinion, the study of religiousness not as the characteristics of the individual psyche but as a social-psychological phenomenon is the most specific and complex. It is the social-psychological approach that provides insight into the formation of a religious person and his/her behavior in the context of social interaction, understanding of the religious circulation processes within a small religious group.
To conceptualize the religiousness as a social-psychological phenomenon, the authors carried out the theoretical analysis of the scientific theories of the religiousness. Both the psychological theories and the psychological aspects of this phenomenon description in the framework of philosophy and sociology were considered.
The results of the analysis showed that in the context of the social-psychological approach, the religiousness is the system of interrelations of a man with God and the society. The authors highlighted such social functions of the religiousness as the person’s socialization, person's introduction to the social customs, attitudes, and traditions; the satisfaction of social needs of a person in play, communication and interaction; moral and hygienic functions providing the efficiency of survival of a person in the society; consolidation and regulation of a social group through the creation of the hierarchy. The religious circulation in such context can be considered as the socialization forming both the social identity of a believer and his or her self-consciousness in general.
Based on the obtained conclusions, the authors determined the religiousness as a social-psychological property of a person related to the construction of social interrelations mediated by the relations with the God or the higher force and being a result of the interiorization or acquiring of the social experience.
Orel E.V. The principle of methodological objectivism and some aspects of its application in the psychology of religion. Psikhologiya religii: mezhdu teoriey i empirikoy: sbornik nauchnyy statey. Moscow, PSTGU Publ., 2015, pp. 9–29.
Fyustel de Kulanzh N.L. Drevniy gorod. Religiya, zakony, instituty Gretsii i Rima [The ancient city. A classic study of the religious and civil institutions of ancient Greece and Rome]. Moscow, Tsentrpoligraf Publ., 2010. 414 p.
Dyurkgeym E. Elementarnye formy religioznoy zhizni: totemicheskaya sistema v Avstralii [Les forms of religious life: totemic system in Australia]. Moscow, Delo Publ., 2018. 736 p.
Levi-Bryul L. Pervobytnoe myshlenie [Primitive thinking]. Moscow, Krasand Publ., 2012. 340 p.
Dzheyms U. Mnogoobrazie religioznogo opyta [Variety of religious experience]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1993. 431 p.
Olport G. Stanovlenie lichnosti [Formation of personality]. Moscow, Smysl, 2002. 462 p.
Vundt V. Problemy psikhologii narodov [Problems of the psychology of nations]. Moscow, Kosmos Publ., 1912. 132 p.
Freyd Z. Obsessive actions and religious rites. Psikhoanaliticheskiy vestnik, 2001, no. 9, pp. 4–5.
Freyd Z. Totem i tabu [Totem and Taboo]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2012. 640 p.
Yung K.G. O psikhologii vostochnykh religiy i filosofii [On the psychology of Eastern religions and philosophy]. Moscow, Medium Publ., 1994. 254 p.
Skinner B.F. Po tu storonu svobody i dostoinstva [Beyond Freedom and Dignity]. Moscow, Operant Publ., 2015. 192 p.
Bandura A. Teoriya sotsialnogo naucheniya [Theory of social learning]. Sankt Petersburg, Evraziya Publ., 2000. 320 p.
Frankl V. Osnovy logoterapii. Psikhologiya i religiya [Basics of logotherapy. Psychology and religion]. Sankt Petersburg, Rech Publ., 2000. 286 p.
Maslou A. Motivatsiya i lichnost [Motivation and personality]. Sankt Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2017. 400 p.
Fromm E. Psikhoanaliz i religiya [Psychoanalysis and religion]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2010. 160 p.
Smirnova E.T. Vvedenie v religioznuyu psikhologiyu [Introduction to religious psychology]. Samara, BAKhRAKh-M Publ., 2003. 160 p.
Yasin M.I. Modern trends and trends in the psychology of religion. Vestnik Kostromskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. N.A. Nekrasova. Seriya: Pedagogika. Psikhologiya. Sotsialnaya rabota. Yuvenologiya. Sotsiokinetika, 2016, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 76–79.
Nosovich V.I. Sushchnost, struktura i funktsii religioznoy psikhologii. Avtoref. dis. dokt. psikhol. nauk [Essence, structure and functions of religious psychology]. Moscow, 1983. 36 p.
Ugrinovich D.M. Vvedenie v religiovedenie [Introduction to religious studies]. Moscow, Mysl Publ., 1985. 272 p.
Pismanik M.G. Lektsii po religiovedeniyu [Lectures on religious studies]. Perm, Permskiy gosudarstvennyy tekhnicheskiy universitet Publ., 2006. 245 p.
Orlov Yu.M. Voskhozhdenie k individualnosti [Ascent to the individuality]. Moscow, Prosveshchenie Publ., 1991. 287 p.
Lotman Yu.M. Izbrannye stati v trekh tomakh. T. 1. Stati po semiotike i topologii kultury [Selected articles in three volumes. Volume 1. Articles on semiotics and topology of culture]. Tallin, Aleksandra Publ., 1992. 247 p.