THE COMPONENTS OF PARENTAL COMPETENCE TOWARDS THE INFANTS AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
The paper discusses the structure of parental competence. The analysis of the ideas of parental competence in the Russian sources allowed identifying its main components: the emotional acceptance and respect of a child’s individuality; the consistency of specified requirements; the ability of a parent for reflection on a situation and for involvement of a child into this process; the organization of joint activity; the skill of creation of the conditions of confidence and psychological safety. The analysis of foreign sources showed that the parental competence is considered more often from the point of view of bioecological approach and is understood as the style of parenting promoting the best development of a personality in order to occupy the ecological niche in future.
The paper presents the results of the empirical study of parental competence towards the infants and preschool children carried out in the preschool institutions of Pskov and Pskov region. The study used both the famous parental attitude questionnaires and a specially developed questionnaire and the incomplete-sentence method. The authors described the components of parental competence identified during the factor analysis. It is shown that there is the specificity in the structure of parental competence depending on the age of children. The external social (family membership, number of children, age, education, status of parents, etc.), socio-economic and social-psychological factors (the lack of money, housing, the impact of street, Internet, school, broken matrimonial and parental roles) take the important place within the structure of competence of the infants’ parents.
Parental competence towards the preschool children characterizes by better formedness of psychological components. Parental competence supposes the ability to resolve personal conflicts and ability to teach that their child. The authoritarianism is presented as a component of parental competence towards the infants, and the authoritativeness – towards the preschool children.
Minina A.A. The problem of parental competence in native psychological and pedagogical literature. Vestnik Pskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie nauki, 2017, no. 6, pp. 67–77.
Kamzina O.A. The interrelation of parental anxiety and parental competence conditioned by social expectations. Sotsialnye yavleniya, 2016, no. 4, pp. 55–60.
Elizarov A.N. Mutual supplement elements as a basis for Shakhtar parenthood. Pedagogika i psikhologiya obrazovaniya, 2010, no. 2, pp. 31–41.
Polivanova K.N. Parenting and Parenthood as Research Domains. Psikhologicheskaya nauka i obrazovanie www.psyedu.ru, 2015, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–11.
Ovcharova R.V. The Basic Components of the “Parenthood” Notion. Sotsialnaya pedagogika v Rossii. Nauchno-metodicheskiy zhurnal, 2011, no. 4, pp. 82–88.
Metlyakova L.A. The concept about the essence and structure of the educational potential of a modern family: the pedagogical aspect of the problem. Vestnik Vyatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2011, no. 4-3, pp. 11–16.
Andronnikova O.O., Evdokimova M.A. Methodical bases of organizing and conducting the program of psychological and pedagogical support for parental competence formation. Vestnik Kemerovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2018, no. 2, pp. 77–84.
Kabanchenko E.A. Parental competence as a psychological phenomenon. Nauchnyy forum: pedagogika i psikhologiya: sbornik statey po materialam III Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Moscow, MTsNO Publ., 2017, pp. 43–47.
Selina V.V. The educational environment for the development of parental competence in the education of infants in the groups of short period staying. Vestnik Novgorodskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. Yaroslava Mudrogo, 2008, no. 45, pp. 68–70.
Mizina N.N. Parental competence: psychological aspect of the problem. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Severo-Kavkazskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki, 2009, no. 7, pp. 8–10.
Minina A.V. The structure and content of pedagogical competence of parents in the upbringing of self-reliance in children of preschool age. Obrazovanie. Nauka. Innovatsii: Yuzhnoe izmerenie, 2013, no. 2, pp. 93–98.
Belsky J. The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 1984, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 83–96.
Bermaoui J., Ostner I., Stolberg C. German debates on “parental competence” and “grade A parenting” in historical perspective. Goettingen, PolChi Working Paper Publ., 2016. Vyp. 12/4, 24 p.
Baumrind D. Socialization and instrumental competence in young children. Young Children, 1970, no. 26, pp. 104–119.
Teti D.M., Candelaria M.A. Parenting Competence: Handbook of Parenting. Volume 4: Social Conditions and Applied Parenting. 2nd ed. London, Bornstein Publ., 2002. 409 р.
Ainsworth M.D.S., Blehar M.C., Waters E., Wall S. Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, Erlbaum Publ., 1978. 167 p.
Glăveanu S.M. Validating a training program for parental competence. Problems of psychology in the 21st century, 2012, vol. 2, pp. 14–20.
Grk M., Čokorilo R. Pedagogical competence and pedagogical education of parents. Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, 2012, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 319–332.
Bronfenbrenner U. The ecology of human development. Cambridge, Harvard University Press Publ., 1979. 330 p.
Belsky J., Jaffee S.R. The multiple determinants of parenting. Developmental psychopathology. 2nd ed. New York, John Wiley & Sons Publ., 2006, pp. 38–85.
Gribanova D.Ya. Parental attitude as a component of parental competence. Novaya paradigma sotsialno-gumanitarnogo znaniya: sbornik nauchnykh trudov po materialam Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Belgorod, APNI Publ., 2018. Ch. IV, pp. 19–22.
Ivanova S.P. Educational potential of modern families of Pskov’s first-class schoolchildren. Vestnik Pskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie nauki, 2017, no. 6, pp. 108–116.
Markovskaya I.M. The questionnaire for the study of interaction between parents and children. Semeynaya psikhologiya i semeynaya terapiya, 1999, no. 2, pp. 94–108.
Varga A.Ya., Stolin V.V. Parental relationship test. Psikhologicheskie testy. Moscow, VLADOS Publ., 2001. Vol. 2, pp. 144–152.
Shvedovskaya A.A. The application of the “parental composition” method in the diagnostics of parent-child relationships in the preschool age. Psikhologicheskaya diagnostika, 2005, no. 4, pp. 96–128.