SYSTEMATIZATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT CAUSES: THE INSTITUTIONAL ASPECT
The favorable labor market environment contributes to the economic and social development of the state. In this regard, the relations between employees and employers, which form the level of involvement of labor resources in social reproduction, are the most important macroeconomic issues. Therefore, there is an objective need to predict the development of the labor market and determine the directions and tools of its regulation.
The analysis of statistical data on unemployment rates, as well as the rate of growth of real disposable income of citizens of the Russian Federation for 2008–2018, revealed a systematic decline in unemployment against the deteriorating living standards of the population. Thus, the official actual unemployment rate published by the state statistics bodies does not reflect the real situation on the domestic labor market. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that there is a system of informal employment institutions that have a serious impact on the actual unemployment rate.
To interpret the current contradictory situation, the authors systematized scientific works in the field of labor market research, classified informal employment institutions caused by the wide self-employment of the population, discrimination of applicants on the basis of gender, age and work experience; migration of unskilled labor to Russia; lack of career guidance; optimization of labor resources in a number of industrial sectors and the public sector. In conclusion, the authors determined the impact of informal institutions on the main types of unemployment and formulated conclusions that allow predicting changes in the labor market in modern conditions of digitalization of the economic system. The informal institute “optimization of labor resources” is defined as the main direction of further research.
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